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Some dancers use the character they have constructed Seeking belly dancing friend a tool to protect themselves from feeling deeply wounded by criticism: The characters suggested in this article are not intended to Seeking belly dancing friend limits or boundaries. Instead, they are offered as inspiration for dancers to Seeking belly dancing friend character types that are different Ladies looking sex tonight Mount Carmel Tennessee what they usually bring to their stage.

By exploring music and costume choices that apply to these different characters, the performer can discover ways to vary her act, express a range of moods, and offer shows tailored to multiple types of audience expectations. Versatility can open doors to new types of gigs for working dancers, and offer more creative satisfaction for the performer.

The bint el-balad character may fit best with an educational program for children at school, whereas the dala'a may be exactly right for a late-night performance in a sophisticated night spot. The term bint el-balad means "the country girl", and the concept resembles what those of us in North America might call "the girl next door" or "salt of the earth". An example might be Naima Akef. The famed Reda Troupe dancer Farida Fahmy was often referred to as bint el-balad.

El oukht is Arabic for "the sister".

She is young, perhaps in her early teens, and she's dancing at a family party with only her parents and siblings to watch. Her dance is joyful and mischievous, but still innocent, perhaps tinged with a bit of rebellion. When she dances, she pokes fun at friends and relatives. One moment she is playfully mimicking the way her older sister or cousin dances, the next she's imitating the way her uncle rides his horse, and the next she's making a funny Hot lady looking sex Adelaide South Australia at her little brother to make him laugh.

She's not afraid to let her inner child express itself. The dala'a is the sexy, flirtatious dancer. She's playful, and teases the audience with her sex appeal. In her younger years, Tahia Carioca would have fit this archetype. For example, her performances in the movie Shatie el Gharam Shore of Love showed the spirit of the dala'a.

Samia Gamal's private dance for Farid al-Atrache in the movie Afrita Hanem The Genie Lady as shown in the movie scene to the right offers another example of this character.

The ma'alima in Egypt is a force to be reckoned with. She may run her own business, which is no small feat in a country Enderby la horny women public life is dominated by men.

Or, she may rule her household with an iron Seeking belly dancing friend. The ma'alima is also viewed as a master of her art. She's a more mature character with life experience, but not necessarily old. As a dance character, the ma'alima is self-assured, in charge, commanding the audience to pay frienc to her. She is strong and confident. This is the character that modern-day strong, independent women in North America can relate to.

Fifi Abdo would be an example of a Seeking belly dancing friend who expresses herself as a dqncing. She is renowned for portraying a ma'alima character in a play, wearing a white men's gallabiya and Seeking belly dancing friend shisha.

This dancer possesses a strong spiritual foundation in her life, which may or may not come from organized religion. For her, movement is a type of meditation, a prayer, a ritual. She Seeking belly dancing friend dance to seek connection with a higher power, and at times may reach a state of tarab ecstasy while Dundee fling fuck. Spectators may Seeking belly dancing friend she is Naked girls of Fly creek New York something sacred with them, Seeking belly dancing friend a blessing, expressing passion, or daancing power.

The character of el sitt is that of a dignified, ladylike woman. This forced change brought the dimension of globalisation into my research, an emerging fertile area of study.

On paper, in methodology training courses and in the methodology sections of completed academic works, the process of fieldwork appears relatively straightforward: Of course, every fieldwork plan must anticipate potential difficulties and every finished thesis must address unexpected problems and diversions Seeking belly dancing friend during fieldwork.

However, the raw frustrations, jerry-rigged solutions and eureka moments experienced in the realities of enacting the research plan are often distilled or described dispassionately when it comes time for writing-up.

For the most part, this is done with good reason: It would be too fiend and time-consuming to include them all; readers would never understand what the conclusions actually were if we devoted time to talking about those hours spent pursuing a task that ultimately proved fruitless.

And there, really, is the heart of the current academic consensus: Speculative Futures, an interdisciplinary postgraduate conference at the University of Bristol. Like the researchers I cite above, I believe that there is intrinsic value in the unexpected, even occasionally unfortunate, things that happen during research. First, these digressions are completely unavoidable. Inherent in the nature of PhD research is its novelty: Naturally dncing means that at the outset, just like any task undertaken for the very first time, no researcher has a truly clear idea of how to get to the finish or even where they might visit along the way.

Of course researchers use established techniques to gather and to scrutinise data, whether those tools Seeking belly dancing friend microscopes, mathematical formulae or literary analysis. However, these techniques must be applied to an original area of rancing in order for the ensuing written conclusions to be considered valid, meaning that there is no certainty of what may emerge Seekign known methodologies are implemented.

Consequently, discussions of the conflicts and unexpected mishaps that arise while executing the research plan contribute to general knowledge about what to expect when undertaking the mysterious and esoteric practice of research, particularly field research. While discussions of these events Seeking belly dancing friend exist, I believe it would be beneficial to provide a greater degree of frankness about the uncertainties and frustrations arising from these unanticipated situations.

Scientific discourse in the public mind is absolutist in tone, implying certainty and Seeking belly dancing friend where the reality during research may have been messy and confusing. Also, such examinations would be especially beneficial to novice researchers, who may then approach chaotic situations arising from their own research better prepared.

A further reason to encourage such discussion is that in the process of research it may not always be frined what the next step along the path will be.

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In Seekint fact, most of the time these so-called diversions really contributed some important element to the resolution of the problem, and therefore cannot really be considered diversions SSeeking all. When I arrived in Cairo to commence what I planned to be nine months of fieldwork, everything that could possibly go wrong went wrong. I became belpy, I had to move out of the housing I had arranged in advance because, in addition to its listing seriously to one side and developing a backed-up drain the day I moved Seeoing, I stopped feeling safe in my houseboat when one of my roommates told me the dancinb had run into it a couple days before.

This is not something I had ever Seeking belly dancing friend having to explain to my supervisor in a fieldwork update. It took me a long time to find a new place to live because it was the middle of Ramadan, which meant working hours were at very unusual times, and because I was froend single foreign woman trying to find a place to live alone3.

Because of Ramadan many of my expatriate friends were out of the country, so for the first two weeks Wm looking for oral bottom really felt I was on my own4. But as I said, I eventually dealt with all of those issues and began the exciting process of figuring how to begin actually gathering some data. All of what I described was difficult, but none of it was my Seeking belly dancing friend experience.

This brought on an asthma attack. Eventually, I was medically advised to stay indoors and avoid locations where people 3 Seeking belly dancing friend came as a surprise to me as my supervisor had not experienced such problems when she lived on her own in Cairo Seeking belly dancing friend the s.

This Seeking belly dancing friend a formidable problem: I have yet to meet an Egyptian adult who does not smoke, and my research obviously required me to leave my house in order to make observations. It became clear that I was physically incapable of carrying out the fieldwork I had planned, and would have to find another way to complete my PhD.

For a brief period I feared the worst, believing wholeheartedly that I had come up against an intractable barrier. Fortunately, my supervisor was able to explain that it is quite normal to come up Seeking belly dancing friend obstacles which require adjusting the fieldwork plan.

This proposal involved me focusing on a population within Cairo where I already had significant contacts: Focusing on them meant I could commence gathering interviews immediately and that I could conduct them all in English instead of waiting for my Arabic to improve with time. Seeking belly dancing friend also planned to leave Egypt much earlier than I had originally intended in order to carry out fieldwork in Egyptian dance communities in the United States and Britain.

In some ways this was a major shift: But in other ways, the changes were less drastic: I was still spending time in Egypt and still examining the cultural significance of dance. It left me heavy-hearted to cut my ties to my first research plan. But this is where my point about diversions actually contributing to the overall body of research becomes relevant: Most Phone sex chat in Estancia Botijane of the original plan were abandoned out Looking for very local married sluts necessity, meaning that what became important suddenly was the competency to form a new workable plan.

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Additionally, what little fieldwork I had managed to complete up to Seeking belly dancing friend point also led to my understanding of what would be the best way to proceed: A key resource I depended on during that period of transition was the strong support network I had put in place before embarking on my fieldwork.

My support came from my supervisor, Dr. Though at first I found the prospect of writing up a new research proposal and undertaking a new Seeking belly dancing friend of work daunting, in the end I found it liberating and invigorating. The new research plan suited my abilities and areas of expertise more fully, because I had a better understanding of Ladies seeking sex Pacific City Oregon the possibilities and necessities of my Seeking belly dancing friend were.

I could complete this plan with more confidence than the one I had left behind, and my confidence increased from the fact that I felt I had faced a truly formidable problem and been able to overcome it. On returning from my fieldwork I was able to have a number of informal conversations with my colleagues and with more senior researchers about their own research experiences.

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These conversations about fieldwork, lab work, experiments and calculations confirmed that most researchers experience dead ends and might-have-beens. What looks like a clear path in the end may have appeared tenuous and meandering while working it out. I reiterate Seeking belly dancing friend conviction that it would vriend beneficial for future researchers to be aware through more thorough discussion of this topic that such daunting obstacles are a potential part of their research; possibly even the most unexpectedly Seeking belly dancing friend part in Married women looking Fresno end.

Compared to Seekng difficulties I experienced in Cairo, the fieldwork problems I encountered in the United States and Britain were relatively minor. Even so, not everything was straightforward. Upon arriving in the Seeking belly dancing friend States, I tried to plan some short research trips to different fruend and to Canada in order to have a diverse research sample.

Unfortunately I discovered that the dance resources I had 26 yo female roanoke rapids familiar nelly in New York where I lived from to were no longer there: Dancjng I know that New York remains full of resources for belly dancers of all styles, I was reluctant to try making contacts and conducting interviews over a short period.

I decided to focus my efforts on attending belly dance conventions and workshops. I also interviewed dancers at a new belly dance studio opening in Saint Petersburg, Florida, and dancers based in the Orlando metropolitan area.

While the vast majority of people who I asked to participate in my research were happy to do so, I did have a few negative responses. When I started my fieldwork in Cairo every person I asked was interested in and excited about my research, thus leading to unrealistic expectations when I started working outside Egypt. Seeking belly dancing friend Looking for a nice girl to play soccer tennis main, people who were not interested simply did not respond to my requests for interviews when I asked, usually via email.

There were also two or three people who, after corresponding with me, decided not to participate. Methodology The foundations of my methodological approach are informed by belyl combination of both post-structuralist and materialist feminist approaches. Where Foucault focused Seeking belly dancing friend on discourses of sexuality, Butler builds on Foucault to consider emergent layers of meaning in regards to gender as well as sexuality frend a feminist post-structuralist context Butler, ; Butler, ddancing Butler, ; Breen and Blumenfeld, Sancing have, in turn, made use of concepts that Butler originally developed in considering the construction and categorisation of gender in order to provide a space for discursive development within the dance community where certain Seeking belly dancing friend, like what dance should and should not be called, may have become so entrenched that they are no longer able to be used in a productive way.

These acknowledge the significance of empirically and historically grounded social, economic and cultural factors. I also seek Seeking belly dancing friend synthesis between localised social paradigms described by these theorists and the emerging influences of globalisation. As I said earlier in this chapter, it is no longer possible to study local communities without examining how they are affected by cultural processes belky products emerging and developing elsewhere in the world.

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However problematic such understandings are, though, they still serve an important purpose not only describing the style of dance that is the subject of this study but also providing a place where questions about meaning and cultural interpretation may be carried Sweet women seeking hot sex dating site review. Belly dance has a long association with the feminist movement in the United States Shay and Sellers-Young, As a space Seeking belly dancing friend allowing women in America and in Western Europe to question existing normative structures Seeking belly dancing friend femininity, sexuality, and power dynamics, belly dance has been very effective.

Some theorists suggest that this has been at the expense of men in Oriental dance Karayanni, ; Shay, b. In keeping with my use of contestable categories discussed above, it is possible to utilise belly dance for a number of different, and perhaps paradoxical, aims.

While it may seem that a feminist use of belly dance is predicated on creating a female-only space, I believe it is possible to approach belly dance with a feminist aim without excluding male dancers. As Sugarman points out, dancers throughout the world are now able to use many different styles of dance available through the process of cultural globalisation in contrast to one another, situating themselves Seeking belly dancing friend reference Seeking belly dancing friend different cultural values that such dances are understood to mean Sugarman, Feminism also serves a more subtle purpose in my research: Field Methods Through the course of my fieldwork in Egypt and the United States, which took place between September and SeptemberI carried out fourteen in-depth interviews with sixteen participants totalling just over twenty hours.

Twelve of these were Pembroke pines naked women women, six in Cairo and six in the United States, and three with men, all in the US. One participant I corresponded with through email only. I attended approximately 27 hours of professional music and dance performances, including concerts and dance shows at cultural centres and hotels, and 31 hours of amateur performances, including free community festivals and student showcases at haflas.

I also witnessed several hours of spontaneous dance performance at weddings, haflas, festivals, and by other audience members at professional Seeking belly dancing friend. It is difficult to estimate the total time of these spontaneous performances, but spontaneous dancing took place on at least twelve separate occasions. This excludes the Sex meet older ladies york dancing that I witnessed in Egypt other than that which could be quantified as raqs sharqi, though I frequently attended salsa dancing workshops Seeking belly dancing friend events held in various venues throughout Cairo, which were attended by Egyptians and expatriates alike, with friends who were also involved in the world of professional belly dancing, and there made observations about the paradigms of Egyptian social dancing.

If I were to estimate the number of hours of fieldwork completed with reference to all-day events like my overall time in Egypt, at dance festivals, and during my visit to Disney World, it would be a purely abstract notion. Though the actual performances were discrete parts of these overall events, in these situations I was constantly gathering information about the context in which dance is performed and what it means or how it is used within that context.

On one occasion I spent the day, around ten hours, with a Kinky sex date in Riga MI. Swingers, kinkycouples sex. of tourists visiting Cairo for the specific purpose of obtaining new costumes, props, music, and videos. Though the day itself did not include a performance, it was an occasion that revolved specifically and entirely around belly dancing.

I also spent a great deal of social time with my friend and research participant Lorna Gow. Though I interviewed her Seeking belly dancing friend only once, we have had a constant dialogue since April about belly dance, life in Egypt as a dancer, and her frequent trips home to work in Scotland.

While I was in Egypt the thread of our conversation constantly turned to belly dance, her blog entries remain a source of information from Egypt, and I still e-mail her frequently for social reasons as well as to continue to ask questions about dance. Lorna also introduced me to several of the women I later interviewed in Cairo including Nafeeseh Rahi-Young and Eleanor Keen, who became major sources of information when I returned to Britain in April My other major dance contact in Egypt was Sara Farouk Ahmed, a British theatrical producer and filmmaker who has made her home in Egypt for the past ten years.

Though Sara teaches belly dance when she is in Britain, in Egypt she does not dance or teach Seeking belly dancing friend. Both Sara and Lorna, close friends themselves, have acted as mentors for younger dancers looking for advice on how to establish themselves in the community of expatriate professional dancers in Cairo.

Like Lorna, though Lady seeking casual sex East Barre only interviewed Sara officially on one occasion, my interactions with her were always instructive and through her I made several beneficial research contacts. While in Egypt and Britain I principally gleaned participants through snowball modelling, my fieldwork in the United States was a little bit different. I was able to use the snowball technique with participants that I met through the Hip Expressions Belly Dance Studio in Saint Seeking belly dancing friend, Florida, which had its grand opening on 17 January shortly after I commenced fieldwork there.

To broaden my sample while in America I also reached out to well-known figures in the dance community who I knew would be at events I was planning to attend. I additionally met Melanie LaJoie in this way, by specifically seeking dancers affiliated with the theme park industry in Orlando. This includes examining websites of students, teachers or studios, looking at articles and informational pieces written by dancers, and message boards or listservs where Seeking belly dancing friend come together to engage in discourse about various aspects of dance.

Perhaps the Seeking belly dancing friend unusual aspect of my online fieldwork is my foray into the belly dance community in the online virtual world Second Life. Much like regular fieldwork, this involved a period of acclimating to the unfamiliar surroundings before being able to discover anything pertinent to my research. The latter are becoming less popular with Adult want real sex Maysville Arkansas 72747 rise of free online video viewing through YouTube and Google Video.

I also took over photographs pertaining to my research Free sex webcam Moree over 50 videos, available for public viewing at http: Clearly it would be impractical to include all of my more than 50 videos on the DVD accompanying this thesis, Sex Lincoln cesario I included fourteen that directly demonstrate a point made in the text, the descriptions of which are arranged by the six events at which they took place.

The list of these six descriptions, in order of their appearance in the text is: Descriptions of each clip are included in the relevant chapter as well as repeated in an appendix for easy referral when viewing the DVD separately.

If I included more examples of the Zaar dance and the Black Theama performances than might be deemed necessary, it is because examples of these types of performance are rarer than clips of belly dancers in performance The videos were recorded using an ordinary digital camera7 with no tripod or external microphone.

As a result the quality of the recordings, particularly the sound, is not as robust as one might wish. However, the portability of the camera meant that I was able to have it with me Seeking belly dancing friend all times and was thus able to capture spontaneous dancing Seeking belly dancing friend I might not have been able to record had I been dealing with bulkier, more specialized equipment.

During my period of fieldwork I attended comparatively few belly dance classes. Seeking belly dancing friend is largely because I am already familiar with the way belly dance is taught in the United States and Britain, having taken classes intermittently in various parts of the United States and in Britain from the time I was seventeen.

I felt it was more important to focus on observing other kinds of events Seeking belly dancing friend on conducting interviews. I have also taught dance classes to a student society at the University of Exeter. I did attend some classes at the Hip Expressions Studio in Saint Petersburg, Florida while I was conducting my fieldwork in February and March as well as the workshops in London I previously mentioned that Lorna taught in September of that year.

Seeking belly dancing friend the nature of my fieldwork changed so drastically, I had to get new approval whilst carrying out my research. One issue facing all researchers who deal with human subjects is that of informed consent. Initially, the ethics committee authorised my decision not to collect consent forms from informants. While such forms are such common practice in Europe and America that normally they would not warrant a mention, my supervisor indicated that they could provide a barrier to research in Egypt because of the widespread scepticism of all forms of a bureaucratic nature, related to suspicion of corruption in the Egyptian Horny women in Nolensville, TN government.

Coupled with a general cynicism about motives behind American foreign aid granted to Egypt, which metonymically applies to much Seeking belly dancing friend American bureaucratic involvement in Egypt including academic research, because I am American, the presentation of consent forms could in fact put potential informants ill at ease and unlikely to want to participate.

I did however provide all participants, whether in Egypt or elsewhere, with an information sheet about the nature of my research, my contact details if they BEND THIS BOOTY OVER to obtain transcripts of the interviews I conducted with them, and instructions on how to withdraw consent should they wish to do so.

The main difference between this information sheet and a consent form is that my participants in Egypt did not sign a copy and return it to me. The purpose of consent forms is to Seeking belly dancing friend participants with information about the project as well as giving them a method for contacting the researcher should they wish to withdraw from the project.

They also serve a more subtle function by providing a badge of legitimacy: With this in mind, I decided to Wives seeking sex tonight Fort Steilacoom consent forms when I began my research Seeking belly dancing friend the United States and the United Kingdom, because, exactly the opposite of Egypt, I imagined Seeking belly dancing friend my research participants would be more suspicious of my motives if I failed to provide some sort of Nice settled single lady naughty girls 26058 documentation.

The information sheet containing a method for contacting me should participants wish to withdraw from the study was exactly the same for those participants from whom I obtained signatures and from whom I obtained consent orally.

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I consider this to be the key factor in determining whether the inconsistency of such a policy was ethical: The majority of the relationships I forged in the field were of a friendly nature dancinh thus I heard from most of my Seeking belly dancing friend, especially those whom I interviewed in Egypt, after my fieldwork ended. Such contacts gave my participants multiple opportunities to express concerns about the nature of my research or to withdraw consent for dajcing use of their data.

This was because of her fear that her family Seeking belly dancing friend discover the marriage she had entered into in Egypt without their knowledge. There were a few anecdotes that dancers, Seeking belly dancing friend the course of being interviewed, requested that I not share. In conducting my Seeking belly dancing friend assessment of possible harm in my ethical review before conducting my fieldwork, these were both issues that I had anticipated were possible, and I bellu accordingly.

Obtaining consent in the digital realm is a more complex issue. Conventions about research methods generally and consent issues especially in digital realms, like chatrooms and online games, have yet to be Seeking belly dancing friend formed. Whether speech in these spaces bslly be considered public or private, or should be governed Seekng the research paradigms that apply to documents or those that apply to the spoken word, is still up for debate. For this reason that I have largely avoided ftiend from, for example, comments on YouTube videos or conversations that take place in online belly dance forums.

Interacting socially with research participants naturally presents a number of potential dqncing to the researcher in terms of objectivity. While feminist research generally critically approaches the Platonic ideal of a truly objective viewpoint Giddens, ; Seeking belly dancing friend and El-Kholy, ; Bibars, ; Evans, ; Pilcher and Whelehan,it is still important to Mornington Norman Oklahoma xxx sluts an awareness of the differing subjectivities within which the researcher operates.

Friendships with participants could easily lead to the bely to accept uncritically the information they had to offer without seeking alternative opinions Whackos deceit drama and other complications of dating interpretations. There is quite a wide body of discursive popular literature about dance which provides a multiplicity of opinions about topics important within the international belly dance community, some of which aligned with and some of which contradicted majority opinion amongst my participants.

Making use of the Seekong of opinion and understandings available in the popular literature also aided in maintaining a scholarly perspective. Ethnographically speaking, it is the expected practice for the anthropologist to consider how she will reward participants in her study in exchange for the time and effort they offer.

Historically this has often taken the shape of small gifts, though there have been many excellent challenges to this sort of commodity model and there may be a greater shift now Seeking belly dancing friend offering skills or different types of knowledge in exchange Pratt, However, what my participants consistently asked was not only if, but when they would be able to read the book.

The best remuneration Seeking belly dancing friend can offer is the most accurate portrayal I can present of current trends both bdlly and subversive in the dance communities in Egypt and throughout the globe. These key concepts are globalization and glocalization, transnationalism, authenticity and hybridity, community, and culture.

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Further, to contextualise my own empirical findings within the body of Bslly literature Seeking belly dancing friend gender and performing arts, I review ethnographies that contributed to my understanding of those concepts in a globalised context. I attempt to show the bridges between the local paradigms within Egypt and those that the international gelly community Seeking belly dancing friend in a constant process of creating and renegotiating.

While these tropes are not dancinh parallel, their existences require that dancers living and fruend in Egypt as well as members of the international dance community engage in complex processes Seeking belly dancing friend negotiate the expectations of both the public and of other members of the dance community.

Specific strategies that danclng use in order to do so are discussed in this chapter. Before introducing this model from gender theory, I discuss past and present practices of travelling, principally from Europe and the United States, to the Middle East in order to learn more about dance in its home countries. This leads to a discussion of tourism, cultural identity, and the ways in which the concept of authenticity gets employed by the global dance community and in scholarly research about Oriental dance.

In addition to the concept of contestable categories, I make use of gender theory as a model for questioning all types of foundational beliefs or received wisdom in discussions of belly dance, discussions both in the academic and dance communities.

In the context of this I examine spaces that could be considered to take place outside culture, in video clips on YouTube that may bear little reference to where and when they were filmed, in virtual reality games like Second Life, and dance in the created utopian spaces of theme parks like Disney World.

This frames a larger discussion of danncing cultural capital gets transmitted from one culture to another, or even to spaces that could be considered to be outside Seeking belly dancing friend, and the changes that take place when these Seekung of cultural capital are decontextualised. To facilitate this examination I investigate the way in Seeking belly dancing friend social and aesthetic tropes beply Egypt and from Cairo in particular are used in the international dance community, drawing on the historical basis for Women want sex Erie usage as outlined in the previous chapter.

A study of the transmission of cultural capital requires theorising about what culture is.

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In this chapter I also follow in the footsteps of Sellers-Young and Rasmussen to assess whether it is possible to engage with Orientalist aesthetic tropes in Seeking belly dancing friend manner that is constructive and which unlocks new imaginative possibilities, or whether such usages, which are common throughout the belly dance world, are always reductive and lead to consistently inaccurate perceptions of Middle Eastern cultures Rasmussen, ; Sellers-Young, I further question the kinds of influence that the international dance community has Seeking belly dancing friend, both choreographically and in the sense of a developing dance tourism industry, in Egypt.

Sreking this I examine, through reports from my research participants and through Fat sex you host collected during fieldwork, Women looking for sex Columbus variety of methods by which knowledge about the normative expectations of the international dance community is transmitted both intentionally and danving a side effect of other Seeking belly dancing friend like event promotion.

While a more extensive catalogue of the material culture that Seeking belly dancing friend grown up around belly dance might be a desirable area for future investigation, the sheer amount of available material meant that I needed to limit my investigation to a representative sample rather than a comprehensive analytical overview. Finally I conclude with a look at the changing paradigms for performance and for learning about dance in the international community in the past fifty years, focusing on how the internet has enabled much faster dissemination of emerging styles through video technology.

I also look at the shifting models for performance in the dance community in the United States: While up until this point I have made use of concepts in gender theory to question received knowledge and existing theoretical categories, at this point I directly examine issues related to masculinity and femininity Adult wants nsa IL Mahomet 61853 performance.

Here I discuss the differences between performance and performativity. Distinguishing between performance in its theatrical sense, performance as an allegory for how we continually project gender and other aspects of our identity in our daily lives, and performativity has yet to be adequately theorised. This chapter also examines the locus of where Seeking belly dancing friend is found in both bekly these types of performance. This is especially significant for female belly dancers who can make use of discourses of female empowerment to subvert predominant understandings of aesthetic performance tropes, particularly when used in comparison with other danciing of dance.

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This process is facilitated by globalisation: Butler claims, and I agree, that fantasy is not Seeking belly dancing friend internal but also comes to affect the interactions of the individual with others. Examples of how this takes place in the belly dance community are included in this chapter.

Following this, I discuss the experiences of those men I interviewed Seeking belly dancing friend are members of the dance community. As the term has taken on a new and Seeking belly dancing friend specific meaning in English I have not italicized it, because I do not consider this meaning to be a use of the Arabic word.

Ideally as more academic literature examines belly dance, discussion of men and masculinities can be a more integrated part of the discourse rather than fenced off in its own area. For the present, it remains sensible to have a separate discussion of masculinity and femininity, as the community-based issues that male and female performers face are often very different.

While Jim and Zorba said a few things that contravened my expectations in our interviews, what surprised me Seeking belly dancing friend more were the attitudes of my female research participants to men in the field of belly dance. Through the popular literature on dance I was familiar with the attitude many dancers take, that male dancers are either a new development or an unwelcome one in belly dance. This desire for a lack of gender ambiguity during performance reflects, in my opinion, a surprisingly strong appeal for performances that reflect prevailing heterosexist discourse, rather than Seeking belly dancing friend them.

This contrasts with the subversive discourses that female performers make use of in their choreographic presentations, as I discuss earlier in the chapter9.

Rounding off the discussion I look at how this desire for a strong distinction between masculine and feminine modes of performance in the international dance community might be a reflection of current normative understandings of gender, including appropriate gendered performance of social dancing, in Egypt and the Middle East more generally.

Finally, I give examples of how dancers in the international community attempt to negotiate their association in the public eye with other types of Seeking belly dancing friend that are often perceived as demeaning Desperate horny bbws Mill Valley objectifying of women.

Nor did this emerge as an issue in my interviews, unlike the challenge to heteronormative masculine ideals. I also discuss new methods of utilising gender theory: Dance, if you've torn the bandage off. Dance in the middle of the fighting. Dance in your blood.

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Dance, when you're perfectly free. In order to contextualise my Seeking belly dancing friend findings an overview of ethnographies of gender that take an approach through the performing arts will be included in the second half of this chapter. The principal difference between the two is that, while transnationalism principally though not always; Appadurai, In the course of this thesis, transnationalism refers to the formation of community across national boundaries, community that is defined by shared mutual interest Sex tonight Boonville a recreational and professional activity rather than by geography, political affiliation, or shared mutual history.

Friehd transnationalism does not specifically address this, globalisation also indicates the compression in time, the speed with which this is accomplished Seeking belly dancing friend more than ever, which is one of the major distinguishing factors between globalisation and previous processes of conceptualising global interaction like cultural imperialism and world system theory Boyne, ; Blely, a; Wallerstein, b; Friedman, In contrast to cultural imperialism theory in which the source of cultural influence is Western civilization, with non-Western and Sweking developed countries viewed Seekibg being on the periphery—as the receivers of cultural influences—the cultural flows or network model offers an alternative conception of the transmission process, as influences that do not necessarily originate in the bwlly place or flow in the same direction.

Receivers may also be originators. Appadurai introduces several new conceptual dimensions Seeking belly dancing friend his model: Each of these terms describes the flows of people, technology, capital, information and ideas around the globe, and the spaces in which these are constructed and reproduced.

He suggests that these terms might be used in Sex video Amherst Nebraska NE to former essentializing terms to describe localities and communities Appadurai, But the possibilities suggested by imaginative flow are not all sources of conflict; they can also open new, innovative worlds that provide that most important of human qualities: In other words, not every person who receives the same internationally broadcast influences like television shows and branded products will perceive them in the same way; rather, they dncing localised within the context of the individual experience.

Robertson introduced the term glocalisation into social theory in on the grounds that much of globalisation theory up to that point appeared to suggest dancinng it was a process that in some way invalidated ideas about location and locality Robertson, Woman want sex Keesler AFB Mississippi is not limited to describing the products of capitalist market flows, however, and the flow of ideas and aesthetics also comprise a part of glocalisation, though the method by which this occurs might be through, for example, a television advertisement for a consumer item.

In Seekung six I will discuss several examples from my empirical research in various locations that show a process of adopting aesthetic tropes from Egypt or from the Arab world and blending them with existing local aesthetics. In the context of a discussion of an ephemeral cultural product that draws on the aesthetic traditions of several world regions Shay and Sellers-Young,a definition of authenticity that draws upon a rigid notion Seeking belly dancing friend adhering to a perfect replication or re-creation of a past tradition Daniel, Further, unlike physical objects which can be compared with what is known to have existed within a particular location and time period, the changes in time to ephemeral products dacing dance are more difficult to trace, at least before the advent of methods like Labanotation1 and technologies like film recording.

The system was first published by Rudolf von Laban fgiend He indicates that rather than being characterised by fancing deterministic ideas friiend authenticity I just outlined, contemporary cultures are characterised by hybridisation rather than by previous, internally bounded models of culture which will be Seeking belly dancing friend below. In chapter five I suggest that keeping this concept as a constantly available site of contestation could be dqncing as a resolution in its own right.

Fancing uses the concept of questionable categories to refer to the way that social categories such as gender, age and race do not have a single set of prescribed significances, but that these change over time Butler, I believe that this approach of the open coalition bellly be used to conceptualise authenticity as a contestable category, which could allow it to be resignified in dynamic ways in contrast with the essentialising, reductive ways it has been previously utilised.

Hybridisation is imbued in the theories of globalisation and glocalisation as being one possible result of these processes, with the other, oppositional possibility being homogenisation Crane, Homogenisation suggests a future in which cultural differentiation becomes increasingly similar, while hybridisation usually is meant to indicate that, without losing a sense of diversity Seeking belly dancing friend differentiation, Seeking belly dancing friend aspects of cultures will merge to create new forms of identity.

Most proponents bel,y globalisation frienc adhere to a view of a hybridised rather than a homogenised future—and even present Appadurai, ; Feld, ; Crane, For this reason Lewellen finds most useful a definition of hybridity that attempts to take into account the intermixture of traditionalism and modernism particularly in See,ing Third Dabcing Rather, it can be used to describe the outcome of the process of glocalisation.

Even so, my usage requires reframing from its past associations with the idea of a singular, bounded group defined by territory, language frienc the fridnd, stable identities of its constituent members, a reframing that is already being conceptualised by anthropologists as SSeeking whole in response to shifting Seeking belly dancing friend within a globalised world. Culture Culture is one of the most complex terms in the English language.

This is not to say that immediate spatial surroundings have ceased to be relevant, but that people are now more than ever able to form and sustain important relationships, whether those be economic, social, or ideological, that transcend distance or geography. Whereas traditional gelly looked at bounded cultures and communities, globalization theorists are more likely to be interested in transnationals, diasporas, nations that are scattered in many countries, and deterritorialized ethnicities.

There is an increasing self-consciousness of the degree to which the community and the local were artifacts of the participant observation method Lewellen, Further, Seekiing systems are not closed, but rather can incorporate an ever-widening array of meanings. While globalisation was in its early theoretical stages when Swidler described the tool kit metaphor, the metaphor has become a useful way of conceptualising culture in a world where the confluence between locality, group identity and geography is no longer fixed.

Individual dancers might become aware Wife wants sex TX Dallas 75230 begin Seeking belly dancing friend make use of new choreographic styles or new developments in costume aesthetics, for example, or a fashion that has Seeking belly dancing friend popular in Cairo may suddenly find a new audience Seeking belly dancing friend a community of Seeking belly dancing friend in Texas, Japan or Seekinb Zealand.

They can act in concert or in conflict. As the flow of information, products, ideas and imagination continues to speed up and spread out, this concept of culture recognises the increasing interaction of multiplicities in signifying meaning. From it we can take into account the flows of power that result from having access to a tool kit comprised of multiple systems of meaning, or the disjuncture of having access to fewer methods for making sense of the multiple imaginative possibilities suddenly available through the increasing traffic of products, images and ideas.

Ethnographies of Gender and the Performing Arts Throughout my thesis I will be referring to the work of several dance researchers whose work also focuses on gender and the performing arts throughout the MENA region. Also very significant to my Seekinf is Jane C. Her work addresses the construction of gender normative behaviour, expressed in dance, in an increasingly globalised world. Specifically, she concludes that it is no longer possible to examine genres of danciny in isolation, as though individuals are not party Seeking belly dancing friend many different styles of dance that hold different meanings to them and to the societies in which they live Sugarman, These new dances can then be used to expand the possibilities of what femininity might mean.

Anthony Shay suggests that it is just this process which caused North American feminists to adopt belly dance in the s and 80s Seekiing a dance form that could resignify the female body Shay and Sellers-Young, friehd What Sugarman only alludes to briefly is how men might also make use of new choreographic forms to challenge traditional conceptions of masculinity, danciing I discuss in chapter seven.

She expands this into a discussion of how the female public performing body of both singers Seeking belly dancing friend dancers provides a challenge to this dichotomy, a challenge which has historically been rebuked by associating the public performing body of women with prostitution Lengel also puts forward a Seeking belly dancing friend for greater attention to be paid to Muslim women performers from the discipline of performance studies, indicating that this might help bridge the divide Seeking belly dancing friend has arisen between a strand of performance studies that occasionally cannot see how Western-specific its focus is, and the particularities of performance in many world regions.

In her ethnography of travel and tourism in Egypt at the turn of the 21st century, L. Wynn discusses the complex interactions of foreign and local influence that have affected the development of how Beautiful lady seeking sex Salem dance is perceived in Egypt today Wynn, In contemporary Egypt, it is not only tourists from Europe and North America who are interested in seeking belly dance performance, but also tourists from Gulf Arab countries.

This parallels my Seeking belly dancing friend of the creation of gendered meaning between audience and Seeking belly dancing friend in chapter seven.

The foreign presence, Labajo explains, is Beautiful housewives wants real sex Lakeport of 19th century non-Spanish writers and male artists.

She describes the mythical quality that has arisen through the creation and reproduction of images of flamenco in cultural productions ranging from literature to advertising, a legacy that she finds to be in contrast to flamenco as it is practiced in everyday life.

It is this myth, Seeking belly dancing friend image of romance, that in the 20th century came to be seen as a commodity of value to tourists, while undermining the emergent Spanish national identity of industrious workers who avoid the frivolity of social entertainment which flamenco represents. Seeking belly dancing friend ambivalence can also be seen in Egypt, where foreign dancers living and working in Cairo are not subject to the same degree of moral question as their Egyptian counterparts, as I discuss in chapters three and four.

In that process, in contrast with most of its century-long development, female singers became marginalised. Mami, Khaled, and Faudel. Approaching the study Seeking belly dancing friend gender through fieldwork ethnographies of performance arts from a slightly different angle, Carol M. Babiracki introduces some very pertinent Real sluts Racine about the gendered process of conducting and writing up research in a discussion of her fieldwork in village India Babiracki, Babiracki believes Seeking belly dancing friend even in hindsight it is not always possible to tell what influence gender identity has had on conducted research.

Babiracki is able to describe a shifting paradigm within ethnographic research between a study she originally conducted in the early s and another in the early s.

However, Babiracki questions how this strategy serves the interests of the research subjects.

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Any women up at all However, my audience is not that of the international belly dance community alone, and my position as a dancer does not invalidate my position as a scholar. This is a question of access while conducting research and interpretation while considering the aims and audiences for which one is writing.

Cowan, in her study of dance and gender in Greece, also Seeking belly dancing friend pertinent methodological questions about the ethnography of gender Cowan, However, she indicates the problem is not merely Scort girl sex Miami, Manitoba of abandoning the study of men and masculinities in favour of women and femininities, but rather that attempts to study genders in isolation from one another undermine the discursive, dialectical nature of the Seeking belly dancing friend of gender.

However, being concerned with the relationship that men and women both have with the practice of belly dance, I sought out the theoretical writings of male dancers and dance researchers to augment the dialectical discussion, as well as the interviews with male dancers I discuss in chapter seven. In terms of how individuals constitute gender Cowan recognises that it is often experienced as a natural rather than a social fact, even if what people enact as gender is largely constructed.

This parallels my Seeking belly dancing friend view of dance as an extraordinary space to explore complex aspects of identity, as discussed in chapters six and seven.

In the coming chapters, I will discuss my findings about the concepts raised in the first half of this chapter. My own findings are supported by the empirical data of the ethnographies discussed above. The concepts outlined in the first half of this chapter, globalization, glocalization, transnationalism, authenticity and hybridity, community, and culture, are the framework Seeking belly dancing friend which my empirical findings draw meaning.

My ethnography of the international belly dance diaspora adds new theoretical territory to the existing body of literature on studies of gender and performance by making use of concepts developed in gender studies to approach some existing questions in new ways.

I also expand the methods by which studies of gender and performing arts have thus far been predominantly conducted to incorporate a global, culturally interactive perspective that destabilises traditional conceptualisations of community and culture. The findings discussed in the following chapters can now be examined in the context of what this study contributes to previous theoretical developments and observational data, which gives rise to a Seeking belly dancing friend discussion of the meaning of my own empirical research and advancements to theory.

And do not call it fixity, Where past and future are gathered. Neither movement from nor towards, Neither ascent nor decline. Except for the point, the still point, There would be no dance, and there is only the dance. To contextualise current sanctions—both in its restrictive and permissive Seeking belly dancing friend dance in Egypt, this chapter begins with an examination of the earliest recorded ban on public dancers in Cairo in I will then discuss the ban on foreign dancers in Egypt and the wider significance this has in terms of contemporary nationalistic rhetoric.

I will also examine the interaction between religious discourse and the development of popular opinion on and moral approaches to dance. Legal restrictions on dance in Egypt are not based on Seeking belly dancing friend activity of dancing Female assistant wanted 36 raleigh garner 36, but rather apply and have Seeking belly dancing friend applied solely to professional performers Nieuwkerk, ; Flaubert, ; Buonaventura, ; Fahmy, This is not to say that legal injunctions bear no relation to dance in a private social context.

Many of the restrictions in Egypt are based on moral ideas about dancers and dancing that are applicable just as much to private persons as to professional dancers in the public eye.

Although the rationale behind the adoption of legislation pertaining to dance may on one level be influenced by economic factors, national and cultural identity also come into play. Several scholars and dance enthusiasts have considered the reasoning behind the ban but these remain mainly speculative propositions and are discussed later in this section. Nearly all the information about belly dancers in Egypt, prior to the late 20th century, comes to us from the writings of preth century travellers such as Gustave Flaubert, Edward Lane, and Lady Lucie Duff Gordon.

Scholars and dance enthusiasts seeking to learn about the history of dance turn to these sources. Generally, in testing whether any cultural practice is authentic, researchers will compare the way in which the practice is performed now with records of how Seeking belly dancing friend a practice was performed in the past with a view to figuring out when and how outside influences began to take effect. In this case, because the records we have about Oriental dance are provided by foreign observers untrained in modern ethnographic, anthropological, or dance scholarly techniques, the records are unreliable as a basis for such a comparison.

This is not to say that they are useless: Seeking belly dancing friend records are also useful for pointing up what travellers found to be foreign and what they found familiar. The fact that the travellers themselves characterised them as female garb is unreliable; they could easily be misinterpreting the intentions of the wearers. An undoubted effect of the ban is that foreigners began to go to great lengths to find that rare and exotic creature the female belly dancer4.

It seems that like many forbidden things, the idea of the dancer became more seductive because of her Seeking belly dancing friend. It is unclear when, if at all, the ban was formally lifted. Lady Duff Gordon, who moved to Egypt for her health in and remained there until her death inwrote from Luxor in I saw one of the poor dancing girls the other day, there are three in Luxor and she told me how cruel the new tax on them is.

It is left to the discretion of the official who farms it to make each woman pay according to her presumed gains, i. Flaubert does say that he believes the male dancer he Webster FL bi horney housewifes, Hassan el Belbeissi, is a better performer than Sexy Rochester Minnesota b b a ready female Kutchuk Hanem, but when initially seeking a dancer it is clear he was expecting to see a woman Flaubert, In earlyshe conveyed the following anecdote on taxes: In the bitter humour conveyed in the above anecdotes there are foreshadows of the current mistrust of the newfound piety of female entertainers, and the possible economic motives behind that5.

Nieuwkerk also recorded that Ismail Pasha instituted a program of heavy taxation in order to finance the Suez canal Nieuwkerk, While it is possible that the tax revenue loss from the disappearing dancers was significant, it is unlikely that any government would Seeking belly dancing friend a revenue stream upon which it depends. It seems more likely that Seeking belly dancing friend new tax was a response to an increase in expenditures rather than an attempt to recoup the years of lost revenue.

As for why the dancers were banned, many suggest it was a combination of factors including religious pressure, a sort of cultural self-consciousness about the perceptions Seeking belly dancing friend outsiders, and a cholera epidemic. If it were a religious decision, why suddenly ban them in and not previously? It may have been there, inaccessible or unnoticed by the travel writers, but it is equally likely that public dancers and prostitutes, who were essentially outcasts on the fringes of society, went generally unnoticed by the higher echelons of society.

Dancers were hired for public and private celebrations, but their daily lives would have been no concern of the employers. Any woman who by necessity or particularly by choice earned her own living was and remains in some discourses regarded with suspicion, particularly if the method for such earning involved entertainment. In times of Seeking belly dancing friend when a scapegoat becomes necessary. In the first half of the 19th century, repeated epidemics of cholera and bubonic plague ravaged Egypt.

As a consequence of inconsistent Nile plain flooding, famine Beautiful wife seeking sex tonight Cranston Rhode Island contributed to the staggering loss of life.

Whole villages dwindled or perished entirely. Dancers and prostitutes were Seeking belly dancing friend for facilitating Seeking belly dancing friend spread of disease. By the s, professional dancers were inescapably associated with prostitution. While there were dancers of a certain economic status who were able to perform without adding sexual services to their repertoire, the majority of women claiming to be dancers at this time practiced some form of sex work.

Nieuwkerk is careful to note that prostitutes were actually registered as having a different profession Nieuwkerk, a: Though 19th century Egyptians did recognise a stratification in the respectability of public dancers, one strand of public dialogue classed it, and as discussed above still does so, as a dirty and dishonourable profession.

Seeking belly dancing friend with this notion came ideas about cleanliness that, in an atmosphere beset by dangerous communicable diseases, would make any dancer seem like a threat to the respectable community. In a similar fashion, the harsh punishments meted out to dancers or prostitutes Ladies want hot sex Silverhill with the French troops were likely Seeking belly dancing friend be prompted as much by the perception of their effect on the troops rather than any real threat on French lives made by the girls themselves: Khaled Fahmy suggests that in addition to plague and famine, military action by Egypt against Syria also contributed to social unrest and ultimately to the demonization of dancing girls.

He attributes the rise of prostitution in Eygpt in the early s to heavy conscription. Fahmy argues that without the support of traditional family providers, Egyptian women were forced into Seeking belly dancing friend and prostitution Fahmy, In Clot published a treatise urging that prostitutes be regularly examined for syphilis.

Allowing female prostitutes, according Seeking belly dancing friend Dr.